US-Handelsministerium nimmt sich spanische Oliven vor

Zwei US-Produzenten behaupten in einer Klage, dass spanische Oliven um bis zu 200 Prozent unter Marktwert verkauft werden. Das US-Handelsministerium will den “unfairen Handel” stoppen.

oliven_1500025337079693Nach Holz aus Kanada und Zucker aus Mexiko nimmt die US-Regierung jetzt spanische Oliven ins Visier. Das Handelsministerium in Washington teilte am Donnerstag mit, es habe eine Untersuchung gestartet, ob Olivenimporte aus Spanien “unfair subventioniert” sind. Das Ministerium gehe damit einer Klage von zwei US-Olivenproduzenten nach.

Sie behaupten, dass spanische Oliven in den USA bis zu 200 Prozent unter Marktwert verkauft werden.

Handelsminister Wilbur Ross erklärte, die Regierung werde “rasch handeln, um jeglichen unfairen Handel zu stoppen”. Bis zum 7. August will das Ministerium entscheiden, ob Unternehmen und Beschäftigte in den USA tatsächlich geschädigt werden. Ab September könnte die Regierung vorläufige Strafzölle gegen spanische Oliven verhängen, im November dann endgültige.

Oliven-Exporte in Höhe von 71 Millionen Dollar

Spanien exportierte im vergangenen Jahr Oliven im Wert von knapp 71 Millionen Dollar (62 Mio. Euro) in die USA, wie das Ministerium mitteilte. Es handelte sich um “alle Farben, alle Formen, alle Größen” von reifen, verpackten Oliven. “Spezial-Oliven” etwa für den Martini gehören nicht dazu, auch mit Knoblauch oder Käse gefüllte Oliven nicht.

Die USA streiten sich bereits mit Kanada um den Import von Nadelbaumhölzern und den Export von US-Milchprodukten dorthin. Der Zuckerstreit mit Mexiko ist mittlerweile beigelegt – der Preis für Zucker aus Mexiko, der in die USA geliefert wird, wurde leicht angehoben.

US-Präsident Donald Trump hat auch in der Handelspolitik die Parole “Amerika zuerst” ausgegeben. Die Regierung will mehrere Freihandelsabkommen neu verhandeln. Multilaterale Abkommen mit vielen Mitgliedsländern sieht sie kritisch.

(Source: http://diepresse.com)

Secrets of One of the World’s Healthiest Villages

Pioppi, Italy is known as the world’s healthiest village because many of its residents live past the age of 100. What are the factors responsible for their remarkable longevity? A leading doctor in Britain revealed their secrets.

The villagers have a diet of whole natural foods comprised of things that are in season and available according to the local climate.– Kathy Gruver

Imagine living in a community where the average man lives to be 89 and many reach the 100-year mark. Picture what it would be like to enjoy one’s golden years without dementia or type 2 diabetes, maladies that are an integral part of aging in the rest of the world. After hearing about Pioppi, cardiologist Aseem Malhotra became fascinated with discovering what diet kept the residents so healthy and what lessons could be learned from them.

After studying the village, Malhotra developed a formula for optimal health. For starters, the Pioppians have a very low sugar intake, eating it only once per week. It is this dietary practice that the doctor considers essential for their good health. He contends that western society’s fear of fat is to blame for the high consumption of sugar and refined carbohydrates. Malhotra attributes these foods as the cause of the widespread incidence of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity.


Pioppi has received notoriety because it’s known as the home of the Mediterranean diet. As the villagers have no supermarket, their diet consists largely of vegetables, olive oil and fish. They also eat cheese, but other dairy products aren’t available. Pasta and bread are consumed in small quantities. In addition to sugar, their diet is low in meat and refined carbohydrates.

Other lifestyle practices aside from a healthful diet play a role. The villagers get seven hours of sleep per night and experience freedom from much stress. Although it isn’t intentional, intermittent fasting is a natural part of their lives. They don’t engage in exercise per se, but they’re very active.

Malhotra is the coauthor of a new book, The Pioppi Diet: A 21-Day Lifestyle Plan. Below are his top recommendations for vibrant health and longevity based on the Pioppians:

• Don’t fear fat; sugar and refined carbs are the enemies.
• Keep moving. Exercise for health, not weight loss (and walking is best).
• Extra virgin olive oil is medicine, as is a small handful of nuts – eat both, every day.
• Get seven hours of sleep a night.
• Stop counting calories because not all are created equal.
• Eat 10 eggs a week. They’re satiating and full of protein.
• Have two portions of vegetables in at least two meals a day.
• Fast once a week for 24 hours. Have dinner, then don’t have breakfast or lunch the next day.

While Malhotra is an allopathic doctor, his advisories are in line with tenets of naturopathic medicine. Olive Oil Times sought out the perspective of Kathy Gruver, natural health author, speaker and practitioner. “I think there are several points to this that we can all adopt. The villagers have a diet of whole natural foods comprised of things that are in season and available according to the local climate,” she said.

“This is unlike the western diet that involves a huge amount of processed and packaged foods. It’s not only laden with sugar but also contains fake and unhealthful components such as high fructose corn syrup, MSG, artificial sweeteners, additives, preservatives and fast food. Our bodies weren’t made to process all this fake stuff. It doesn’t know what to do with it,” Gruver added.

“Furthermore, he mentions though they don’t ‘exercise,’ they are very active. We put so much emphasis on workouts, which can be a big turn-off to people. They think it means that they have to go to the gym or run on a treadmill. But it’s about moving your body in a way that works for you.”

“I laud the doctor’s suggestions on sleep, stress and intermittent fasting as well. All of these things, clearly, are combining to promote optimal health and a longer life.”

VILLAGERS IN NORTHERN CRETE HAVE LOW RATES OF HEART DISEASE DESPITE FATTY DIET

People living in isolated Greek mountains villages live long and healthy lives thanks to a unique gene that protects them against heart disease, recent research has found.

Scientists studied the villagers in an area of northern Crete because they had low cases of heart disease despite eating lots of animal fats.

The study, for the first time made a genetic portrait of the population of of Zoniana and Anogia by sequencing the entire genome of 250 individuals.

They found a new genetic variant, common among villagers, which appears to protect the heart by lowering levels of ‘bad’ fats and cholesterol.

Researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute found that the variant is 40 times more common in this small Greek population than in other European populations.

Lead author Professor Eleftheria Zeggini said: ‘Genetic studies like this can help us begin to understand why this is.’

(Sources: https://www.oliveoiltimes.com, http://www.dailymail.co.uk)

Olive you. Olive you more!

Cooking with this adored Mediterranean fruit

It’s difficult to describe the tastes and flavors of foods. Olives are an especially hard case. Nothing tastes remotely like them, so it’s impossible to compare them to any other food.

Olive bread

Olive bread

Novelist Lawrence Durrell did the best job of evoking them when he wrote, “The whole Mediterranean, the sculpture, the palms, the gold beads, the bearded heroes . . . all of it seems to rise in the sour, pungent smell of these black olives between the teeth. A taste older than meat, older than wine. A taste as old as cold water.”

Cultivation of the olive is certainly ancient. The gnarly trees, their green-and-silver leaves trembling in any breeze, are native to the Mediterranean. In Israel, there’s evidence of olive oil production in 6000 BC, and on the Greek island of Naxos, archeologists have discovered remains of olive oil in a jug dating to 4,000 BC.

Indeed, the olive tree was so vital to the Greeks that they embedded it in their myth of Athena. When she struck the Acropolis with her spear, the first olive tree sprang forth. This magic underwhelmed the witnesses, who grumbled that the sea-god Poseidon would have given them a better gift. But after Athena taught them how to cultivate the tree and process its products for food, light and timber, they realized its many virtues and named their city Athens in her honor.

Greece remains a major grower, producing 11 percent of the world’s olives and consuming 23 liters of olive oil per person per year. (Americans consume about one liter.)

(Source: http://www.amherstbulletin.com) Continue reading

Deep-fried olives stuffed with creamy Danish feta

Danish Feta_1349462_1092038INGREDIENTS
80g Danish feta
85ml ( cup) cream cheese
Pinch of dried chilli flakes
3 sprigs fresh thyme, leaves only
Freshly ground black pepper
50 large pitted olives, well drained (the bigger they are, the easier they are to fill)
120g (1 cup) cake flour
3 extra-large eggs, beaten
120g (1 cup) dried breadcrumbs
Oil, for deep-frying

METHOD
Mix the feta, cream cheese, chilli flakes and thyme until relatively smooth. Season with black pepper. Stuff the olives with this mixture, dust well with flour, dip into beaten egg and then into breadcrumbs.

Heat 3cm oil in a deep frying pan and deep-fry the olives in batches until golden brown. Remove with a slotted spoon and drain on paper towel before serving. Makes 50, great for a party snack

(Source: http://www.timeslive.co.za)

Oliven gegen das Vergessen

unnamedDr. Anke Sauter Marketing und Kommunikation
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
Ein neues Forschungsprojekt untersucht Inhaltsstoffe der Olive, die vor Alzheimer schützen sollen. Beteiligt sind Forscher der Goethe Universität Frankfurt, der Technischen Universität Darmstadt und des Darmstädter N-Zyme BioTec. Das Projekt “NeurOliv” wird vom Bundesministerium für Forschung und Wissenschaft gefördert.

FRANKFURT/DARMSTADT. Längst gilt als erwiesen: Wer sich mediterran ernährt und körperlich und geistig aktiv ist, wird weniger wahrscheinlich an der Alterskrankheit Demenz leiden. Vor allem Oliven scheinen dabei eine Rolle zu spielen. Doch welche Inhaltsstoffe der kleinen ovalen Frucht sind es genau, die so hilfreich wirken? Dies will ein hessischer Verbund von Forschern der Frankfurter Goethe-Universität, der Technischen Universität (TU) Darmstadt und dem Darmstädter Unternehmen N-Zyme BioTec GmbH herausfinden. Das auf drei Jahre angelegte Projekt „NeurOliv“ hat ein Projektvolumen von 1,3 Millionen Euro und wird im Rahmen der High-Tech Initiative KMU-innovativ Biochance vom Bundesministerium für Forschung und Bildung gefördert.
Die Kooperation vereint mehrere Ansätze, wobei die Initiative von N-Zyme BioTec GmbH ausging. Ziel ist es, mit Hilfe der Olivenstoffe neue funktionelle Lebensmittel für die alternde Gesellschaft entwickeln zu können, die vor der Alzheimerkrankheit schützen. „Wir wollen prüfen, ob Olivenpolyphenole auch einen Beitrag zur Heilung der Krankheit leisten können. Daher sehen wir unsere Produkte auch im Bereich der Arzneimittel angesiedelt“, sagt Dr. Joachim Tretzel, Geschäftsführer von N-Zyme BioTec GmbH. Gerade kleine und mittlere Unternehmen sollen durch die High-Tech Initiative der Bundesregierung gefördert werden.
Das Team um Prof. Heribert Warzecha am Fachbereich Biologie der TU Darmstadt befasst sich mit der Entwicklung neuer biotechnologischer Verfahren, um die spezifischen Pflanzenstoffe zu gewinnen. Mit den entsprechenden genetischen Informationen sollen Bakterienkulturen helfen, Inhaltsstoffe in reiner und definierter Form darzustellen. „Durch unsere neuen Techniken lassen sich das aufwendige Extrahieren von Stoffen aus Olivenblättern erleichtern und die geringen Ausbeuten deutlich verbessern“, erklärt Warzecha. „Damit sind wir bei der Produktion auch unabhängig von der saisonalen Oliven-Ernte in den Anbaugebieten“, freut sich Dr. Stefan Marx, ebenfalls Geschäftsführer von N-Zyme BioTec.
Die Arbeitsgruppe „nutritional-neuroscience“ des Lebensmittelchemikers Dr. Gunter Eckert, Privatdozent an der Goethe-Universität (GU) Frankfurt, wird die Wirksamkeit dieser biotechnologisch hergestellten Olivenstoffe testen. Dabei werden zunächst die Olivenstoffe in Zellkulturmodellen getestet, die möglicherweise vor der Alzheimer Krankheit schützen. „Wir sehen uns vor allem Veränderung in den Kraftwerken der Nervenzellen (Mitochondrien) an, die sich bei der Alzheimer-Krankheit schon früh verändern“, so Eckert. Die aktivsten Verbindungen sollen dann in einem Mausmodell der Krankheit zeigen, dass sie die Gehirnfunktion verbessern können.
„Wir überprüfen die These, dass bestimmte Polyphenole aus Oliven Krankheitsprozesse im Gehirns verlangsamen, die mitochondriale Dysfunktion verbessern und somit Evidenzen für einen Schutz vor Alzheimer liefern“, fasst Fachpharmakologe Eckert sein Forschungsziel zusammen. Die GU-Forscher erhalten 288.000 Euro Fördermittel für dieses Projekt. In einem anderen Forschungsprojekt nimmt Eckert den Zusammenhang zwischen Ernährung und Bewegung in Hinblick auf die Entwicklung von Alzheimer unter die Lupe.
Bilder zum Download finden Sie unter
Bildunterschriften:
Bild 1 (stehend vor Gebäude): Die Mitglieder des BMBF-Projektes „NeurOliv“ treffen sich zum Kick-off Meeting des das Projektes. Erste Reihe, von links: Dr. Jens Zotzel (N-ZYME), Alexander Webersinke (N-ZYME), Alla Sarafeddivo (N-ZYME), Christopher Fuchs (N-ZYME), Jascha Folk (TU Darmstadt). Zweite Reihe, von links: Dr. Stefan Marx (N-ZYME), Dr. Joachim Tretzel (N-ZYME), Prof. Warzecha (TU Darmstadt), Dr. Gunter Eckert (GU).
Bild 2 (am Konferenztisch): Die Mitglieder des BMBF-KMU Innovativ Konsortiums diskutieren das Projekt „NeurOliv“. Von links: Alla Sarafeddivo (N-ZYME), Christopher Fuchs (N-ZYME), Dr. Jens Zotzel (N-ZYME), Dr. Gunter Eckert (GU), Jascha Folk (TU Darmstadt), Prof. Warzecha (TU Darmstadt), Dr. Stefan Marx (N-ZYME), Dr. Joachim Tretzel (N-ZYME), Alexander Webersinke (N-ZYME).

Informationen: Dr. Gunter Eckert, Goethe-Universität, Tel. (069) 798-29378, E-Mail g.p.eckert@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Dr. Stefan Marx, N-Zyme BioTec GmbH Tel. (06151) 3912-772, E-Mail: marx@n-zyme.de; Prof. Dr. Heribert Warzecha, TU Darmstadt, Tel. (06151) 16-20900, E-Mail: warzecha@bio.tu-darmstadt.de

Die Goethe-Universität ist eine forschungsstarke Hochschule in der europäischen Finanzmetropole Frankfurt. 1914 gegründet mit rein privaten Mitteln von freiheitlich orientierten Frankfurter Bürgerinnen und Bürgern, fühlt sie sich als Bürgeruniversität bis heute dem Motto “Wissenschaft für die Gesellschaft” in Forschung und Lehre verpflichtet. Viele der Frauen und Männer der ersten Stunde waren jüdische Stifter. In den letzten 100 Jahren hat die Goethe-Universität Pionierleistungen erbracht auf den Feldern der Sozial-, Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Chemie, Quantenphysik, Hirnforschung und Arbeitsrecht. Am 1. Januar 2008 gewann sie mit der Rückkehr zu ihren historischen Wurzeln als Stiftungsuniversität ein einzigartiges Maß an Eigenständigkeit. Heute ist sie eine der zehn drittmittelstärksten und drei größten Universitäten Deutschlands mit drei Exzellenzclustern in Medizin, Lebenswissenschaften sowie Geisteswissenschaften.

Herausgeber: Die Präsidentin der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main. Redaktion: Dr. Anke Sauter, Wissenschaftsredakteurin, Abteilung Marketing und Kommunikation, Theodor-W.-Adorno-Platz 1, 60323 Frankfurt am Main, Tel.: (069) 798-12472, Fax: (069) 798-28530.


(Source: https://idw-online.de)

Scientists REVEAL magnesium is the secret magic ingredient to healthy Mediterranean Diet

The secret ingredient which makes the Mediterranean Diet so healthy is magnesium, according to the latest research. By CYRIL DIXON

Scientists say the mineral is more important than previously thought in slashing the risk of heart disease, strokes and diabetes. And they are convinced the results of their work explain why foods such as nuts, whole grains, leafy greens and oily fish help people live longer. The team conducted the largest ever analysis of dietary magnesium data, covering more than a million people in nine countries. Mediterranean-Diet-741021They found that eating a diet rich in magnesium cut the risk of coronary heart disease or stroke by 12 per cent. The danger of developing Type 2 diabetes was reduced by 26 per cent, according to the research at Zhejiang University’s School of Public Health in eastern China.

Low levels of magnesium in the body have been associated with a range of diseases. Dr Fudi Wang

Dr Fudi Wang, who led the project, said: “Low levels of magnesium in the body have been associated with a range of diseases. “But no conclusive evidence has been put forward on the link between dietary magnesium and health risks. “Our analysis provides the most up-to-date evidence supporting a link between the role of magnesium in food and reducing the risk of disease.” His team, based at one of China’s top universities, analysed data from 40 studies covering a seven-year period. Their findings, published in the journal BMC Medicine, suggest people in “developed” countries in the West do not take in enough magnesium. 3B284E5C00000578-0-image-a-33_1481154562612Dr Wang believes public health departments should encourage people to consume more – and to get it from several sources because individual food items do not contain enough. He said: “Green leafy vegetables such as spinach provide magnesium while spices, nuts, beans, cocoa and whole grains are also rich sources. 
“Importantly, the daily requirement is difficult to achieve through a single serving of any one food item.”

(Source: http://www.express.co.uk)

20 Healthy foods that look like the body parts they’re good for

They say you are what you eat, but we never thought that meant “literally” speaking.

These 18 foods actually reflect the body parts they provide nutrients for – read along to know why they say eating carrots is good for your eyes – it’s not just a coincidence.

olive_ovary1. Olives

Olives assist the health and function of the ovaries. Olives and olive oil contain an abundance of phenolic antioxidants as well as the anti-cancer compounds squalene and terpenoid.


grapes2. Grapes

Grapes have an undeniable resemblance to the alveoli of the lungs. Alveoli are tiny sacs within our lungs that allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to move between the lungs and bloodstream. Including red/purple grapes in your diet has proven to reduce the risk of lung cancer and emphysema (a long term disease of the lungs).


kidney_beans3. Kidney Beans

Interesting fact: the Kidney beans got their name due to the resemblance they have to real human kidneys. Kidney beans have significant amounts of fiber and soluble fiber, they are also very high in protein and iron.


sweet-pancreas4. Sweet Potatoes

Sweet Potatoes resemble the pancreas and can actually balance the glycemic index of diabetics. Sweet potatoes are an excellent source of vitamin A (in the form of beta-carotene). They are also a very good source of vitamin C, manganese, copper, pantothenic acid, and vitamin B6. Additionally, they are a good source of potassium, dietary fiber, niacin, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, and phosphorus.

Continue reading

Chilli Salmon Delight

str2_amy0210_jg_2-770x4702 servings

2x160g salmon fillet; salt and coarsely ground black pepper, to taste; a dash of cayenne pepper; olive oil for drizzling; 2 cloves garlic, crushed; some shredded purple cabbage; 1 mini yellow capsicum, halved and sliced; fresh salad leaves like curly endives, etc.

Balsamic dressing
3 tbsp balsamic vinegar; 1 tbsp honey; salt to taste; 1 tbsp olive oil; 1 tsp capers, chopped; 3 green olives, sliced

For the dressing

In a small mixing bowl, combine the balsamic vinegar, honey and salt. Stir to dissolve the salt before drizzling in the olive oil; whisk with a fork or small wire whisk until emulsified. Toss in the capers and green olives. Set aside.

To cook

Preheat a grill pan over medium high heat. Sprinkle salmon with salt, black pepper and cayenne pepper. Drizzle with olive oil and cook for 2-3 minutes each side, or until cooked to your liking. Remove from grill. Add the garlic cloves and grill according to your taste. Remove garlic.

To assemble

Divide the cabbage, capsicum and salad leaves between two serving plates. Place a slice of salmon and a garlic clove on each plate and drizzle the balsamic dressing over the salad. Serve.

(Source: http://www.star2.com)

Pitting yourself against olive etiquette? Here is the CORRECT way to eat olives with pits

IS THERE a polite way of eating pitted olives without spitting the remains into your hand?

By KATRINA TURRILL

Olive-704360

While olive connoisseurs reckon olives with a pit inside are tastier than those without, eating them can prove particularly difficult – especially in front of a crowd.
Most people simply pick the pit out from between their teeth or spit it into their hand, which doesn’t seem too polite. But is this the only way to dispose of it? Or is their a much more glamorous way? Website Olive Central reveals how one should dispose of the pit correctly when eating olives.
Olive Central says there are two scenarios you’ll find yourselves with olives – the first is when they’re served as snacks. The site adds: “To pick them up, use a toothpick if they have been made available, otherwise fingers is fine. Small olives of into your mouth whole, while big olives can be held not he ends with your thumb and forefinger and the flesh bitten off the olive.
“If biting the flesh off the olive, the pit remaining between the two fingers can simply be discarded. When eating the olive whole the pit can be gently spat into your palm or the end of your upright fist.”
Olive-635654“For a slightly more sophisticated version, hold you other handing front of your mouth to hid this spitting activity from view.”
And where should you discard of the pit?
If a bowl has been provided for the pits, they can be put in there, but if not, the side of your own plate is deemed acceptable.Alternatively they can be stored in a paper napkin for later disposal.
The second scenario is when olives form part of a salad. In this scenario, according to Olive Central, table etiquette applies. This means the olive should be put in your mouth using a fork.
The site says: “The easiest way to pick it up is to hold the olive down with your knife and then stab it with your fork. Place the olive in your mouth.
“Tables etiquette suggests that anything thatches out of your mouth should do so the same way it went in. In this case the fork should be used to discard the pit.
“Place one hand in front of your mouth to hide this activity and gently push the pit onto the fork using your tongue.”
But if this forms too much of a challenge for you, you can revert to spitting the pit onto your hand and discarding it.
Again, the other hand should be places in front of your mouth for that added level of sophistication.

(Source: http://www.express.co.uk)

Lemon and Herb Olives

These are great make ahead appetizers; delicious at room temperature or slightly warm

Black olive and lemon paté

A fabulous quartet of flavours – the richness of the cream cheese is cut through with the acidity of lemon and the earthy tang of olives.

e6f707da-71b5-420b-a4df-7b3c9dc3dd68-2060x1568

Serves 4
100g olives, pitted
250g cream cheese
Juice of 1 lemon
Black pepper

1 Add the pitted olives to a blender and blend until almost smooth.

2 Transfer the olive mix to a fine sieve and sit it over a bowl to drain any excess liquid – around 5 minutes should do it. However, if your olives were in liquid it might take a little longer.

3 Next, add the cream cheese to a mixing bowl with the olives, lemon juice and black pepper. Carefully fold together until incorporated.

4 Place a round pastry cutter in the centre of a serving plate, add the paté and tamp down. Remove the ring and serve with some dressed leaves and hot toast.
Andrew Dargue, vanillablack.co.uk

(Source: https://www.theguardian.com)

Grilled Whole Mackerel With Lemon, Oregano, and Olives

Grilling a whole fish sounds daunting, but it’s incredibly simple and requires almost no preparation before cooking it.

This recipe is courtesy of Epicurious.

Grilled Mackerel Flickr MainDirections

Whisk together lemon zest, juice, salt, and pepper. Pour in the olive oil in a stream, whisking until combined well. Whisk in olives and chopped oregano.

With a sharp paring knife, make 1-inch long slits at 2-inch intervals down the middle of the fish, on both sides. Brush the fish all over with vegetable oil, and season with salt and pepper. Season fish cavity with salt and pepper, and fill the cavity with 3 lemon slices and 3 oregano sprigs. Arrange remaining lemon slices and oregano sprigs on top of fish and tie fish closed with kitchen string.

Preheat grill to medium-high heat for cooking. If using a charcoal grill, open the vents on the bottom of the grill before lighting the charcoal.

Grill fish on lightly oiled grill rack, covered only if using gas grill, for 15 minutes. Turn fish over using a metal spatula and tongs, and grill for 15 more minutes, until just cooked through.

Transfer fish to a large serving platter, remove kitchen string, and pour lemon-olive sauce over the top before serving.

(Source: http://www.thedailymeal.com)

Decoding the complete genome of the Mediterranean’s most emblematic tree: the olive

• A team of scientists from three Spanish centers has sequenced, for the first time ever, the complete genome of the olive tree.

• The results have been just published this week in the Open Access journal GigaScience. This work will facilitate genetic improvement for production of olives and olive oil, two key products in the Spanish economy and diet.

• The specimen sequenced is an olive tree of the Farga variety, one of the most widespread in eastern Spain, and over 1,300 years old.

dna1The olive was one of the first trees to be domesticated in the history of mankind, probably some 6,000 years ago. A Mediterranean emblem par excellence, it is of vital importance to the Spanish and other regional economies (Italy, Greece and Portugal). In fact, Spain is the leading producer of olive oil in the world. Every year, nearly three million tons of oil are produced, for local consumption and export. Spain produces one third of this total.

Nonetheless, up to now, the genome of the olive tree were unknown. The genome regulate such factors as the differences among varieties, sizes and flavor of the olives, why the trees live so long or the reasons for their adaptation to dryland farming.

Now a team of researchers from the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) of Barcelona, the Real Jardin Botánico (CSIC-RJB) and the Centro Nacional de Análisis Genómico (CNAG-CRG), has brought new insight to the genetic puzzle of the olive tree, by sequencing the complete genome of this species for the first time ever. The results of this work, fully funded by Banco Santander, have been published this week in the groundbreaking Open Access and Open Data journal GigaScience. The article will pave the way to new research work that will help olive trees in their development and protecting them from infections now causing major damage, such as the attacks of bacteria (Xilella fastidiosa) and fungi (Verticillium dhailae).

“Without a doubt, it is an emblematic tree, and it is very difficult to improve plant breeding, as you have to wait at least 12 years to see what morphological characteristics it will have, and whether it is advisable to cross-breed,” says principal author of this paper Toni Gabaldón, ICREA research professor and head of the comparative genomics laboratory at the CRG. “Knowing the genetic information of the olive tree will let us contribute to the improvement of oil and olive production, of major relevance to the Spanish economy,” he adds.

Private funding to support public science

The story of this project begins with a presentation, a coincidence and a challenge. Four years ago, Gabaldón worked with Pablo Vargas, a CSIC researcher at the Real Jardín Botánico, on the presentation of scientific results of projects focused on endangered species, such as the Iberian lynx, that had been financed by Banco Santander.

At that time, Banco Santander had expressed great interest in financing scientific projects in Spain. Over the course of the presentation, Pablo Vargas proposed to Emilio Botín the complete sequencing of the olive tree genome, using the same technology as had been used to sequence the lynx; in other words, the most state-ofthe-art technological strategy to achieve a high-quality genome.

Five months after that meeting, a contract was signed to carry out the first complete sequencing of the olive tree’s DNA, a three-year research effort coordinated by Pablo Vargas.

“There are three phases to genome sequencing: first, isolate all of the genes, which we published two years ago. Second, assemble the genome, which is a matter of ordering those genes one after the other, like linking up loose phrases in a book. Last, identify all of the genes, or binding the book. The latter two phases are what we have done and are now presenting,” says the CSIC Real Jardín Botánico researcher.

To continue with the book analogy, according to Tyler Alioto of the CNAG-CRG “this genome has generated some 1.31 billion letters, and over 1,000 GBytes of data. We are surprised because we have detected over 56,000 genes, significantly more than those detected in sequenced genomes of related plants, and twice that of the human genome.”

Decoding its evolutionary history

In addition to the complete sequencing of the olive tree genome, researchers have also compared the DNA of this thousand-year-old tree with other varieties such as the wild olive. They have also found the transcriptome, the genes expressed to determine what differences exist on the genetic expression level in leaves, roots and fruits at different stages of ripening.

The next step, researchers say, will be to decode the evolutionary history of this tree, which has formed part of old-world civilizations since the Bronze Age. At that time, in the eastern Mediterranean, the process of domesticating wild olive trees that led to today’s trees began. Later, selection processes in different Mediterranean countries gave rise to the nearly 1,000 varieties of trees we have today.

Knowing the evolution of olive trees from different countries will make it possible to know their origins and discover the keys that have allowed it to adapt to very diverse environmental conditions. It will also help discover the reasons behind its extraordinary longevity, as the trees can live for 3,000 to 4,000 years.

“That longevity makes the olive tree we have sequenced practically a living monument,” says Gabaldón. “Up to now, all of the individuals sequenced, from the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) to the first human being analyzed, have lived for a certain time, depending on their life expectancy, but then died or will die. This is the first time that the DNA of an individual over 1,000 years old, and that will probably live another 1,300 years, has been sequenced.” say Gabaldón and Vargas.

Reference: Fernando Cruz, Irene Julca, Jèssica Gómez-Garrido, Damian Loska, Marina MarcetHouben, Emilio Cano, Beatriz Galán, Leonor Frias, Paolo Ribeca, Marta Gut, Manuel Sánchez-Fernández, Jose Luis García, Ivo G. Gut, Pablo Vargas, Tyler S. Alioto, and Toni Gabaldón. “Genome sequence of the olive tree, Olea europaea” GigaScience 2016. DOI: 10.1186/s13742-016-0134-5

Image available at: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/k11ulb9k7kbb2iw/AACTz3H45t6b0PPjlrX53wQKa?dl=0

For more information and interviews:

Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) Laia Cendrós, press officer Tel. +34 93 316 0237 – Mobile +34 607 611 798 – laia.cendros@crg.eu

Real Jardín Botánico – CSIC Jesús García, head communications officer Tel. +34 91 420 30 17 ext 188 – press@rjb.csic.is

Centro Nacional de Análisis Genómico (CNAG-CRG) Anna Borrell, communication assistant Tel. + 34 93 402 0580 – anna.borrell@cnag.crg.eu

(Source: http://www.crg.eu)

GREEN OLIVE TAPENADE

BY ANDREW KNOWLTON

Green-Olive-Tapenade---ShutterstockINGREDIENTS

  • 10 oil-packed anchovy fillets, finely chopped
  • 1 cup Castelvetrano olives, pitted, crushed
  • 1 cup Cerignola olives, pitted, crushed
  • 1 cup coarsely chopped parsley
  • 1 cup olive oil
  • 1/4 cup coarsely chopped, drained capers
  • 2 tablespoons finely grated lemon zest
  • 1/4 cup fresh lemon juice
  • Kosher salt, freshly ground pepper

PREPARATION

  • Mix anchovies, both olives, parsley, oil, capers, lemon zest, and lemon juice in a large jar or medium bowl; season with salt and pepper.
  • Tapenade can be made 1 week ahead. Cover and chill.

(Source: http://www.epicurious.com)

Frisch gebacken: mediterrane Burger mit Radieschen

Den Geschmack des Sommers beschwört Steirerschlössl-Küchenchef Johannes Marterer herauf – mit Oliven-Buns und einer köstlichen gesunden Füllung.

marterer_last_004_1462548622382619_v0_hFür den Teig:
650 g Weizenmehl, 50 g Roggenmehl, 7 g Salz, 30 g Maizena, 450 g zimmerwarmes Wasser, 20 g Germ, 200 g schwarze Oliven ohne Kern.

Für den Belag:
etwas Sauerrahm, Zucchini, Olivenöl und Knoblauch zum Anbraten, Paradeiser, Radieschen, Koriandergrün, Basilikum, Meersalz, Pfeffer.

Zubereitung
1. Für den Teig die Oliven klein hacken. Weizenmehl, Maizena, Roggenmehl und Salz mischen. Germ in Wasser auflösen, mit den Oliven in das Mehl einarbeiten, zu einem Teig kneten. Mit einem Geschirrtuch abdecken, 20 Min. an einem warmen Ort gehen lassen.
2. Noch einmal durchkneten, Teig zu einer Rolle formen. Teigstücke von je 65 g abtrennen und zu Kugeln formen. Auf ein mit Backpapier ausgekleidetes Backblech legen – nicht zu eng, besser ein zweites Blech verwenden. Weitere 20 Min. zugedeckt gehen lassen.
3. Im vorgeheizten Herd bei 200 Grad etwa 20 Min. oder etwas länger – je nach Herd –backen.
4. Radieschen und Paradeiser in Scheiben schneiden. Kräuter grob hacken. Zucchini in Scheiben schneiden, mit ein paar ungeschälten Knoblauchzehen in wenig Olivenöl scharf anbraten.
5. Zusammenbauen: Weckerl in der Mitte auseinanderschneiden. Den Brotboden mit 1 TL Sauerrahm bestreichen. Mit Zucchini, Paradeisern, Radieschen, Kräutern belegen, mit Salz und Pfeffer würzen. Olivenweckerldeckel aufsetzen.

(Source: http://www.kleinezeitung.at)

Ελιόπιτες

Τα νόστιμα αυτά ψωμάκια είναι ωραίος μεζές για ούζο και τσίπουρο, ενώ μπορούν να αντικαταστήσουν και το ψωμί συνοδεύοντας λαδερά φαγητά. Βέβαια, μπορείτε να τις απολαύσετε και με ένα φλιτζάνι τσάι.

ELIOPITA_slider-575x386

ΣΥΝΤΑΓΗ: 

Υλικά για τη ζύμη

  • 5 φλιτζάνια αλεύρι για όλες τις χρήσεις
  • 1 φλιτζάνι χυμό πορτοκαλιού
  • ξύσμα από 1 πορτοκάλι
  • 1 φλιτζάνι ελαιόλαδο (ή ½ φλιτζάνι ελαιόλαδο + ½ φλιτζάνι καλαμποκέλαιο)
  • 1 κουτ. γλυκού αλάτι
  • 2 κουτ. γλυκού μπέικιν πάουντερ
  • 1 κουτ. σούπας ζάχαρη

Υλικά για τη γέμιση

  • 2 φλιτζάνια ελιές Χαλκιδικής, χωρίς κουκούτσια
  • 2 κρεμμύδια μεγάλα, ψιλοκομμένα
  • 1/3 φλιτζανιού δυόσμο ψιλοκομμένο (ή 2 κουτ. σούπας αποξηραμένο)
  • 1 φλιτζάνι αμύγδαλα χονδροκομμένα
  • σουσάμι

Διαδικασία

Ετοιμάζετε τη ζύμη. Σε ένα μπολ ανακατεύετε το αλεύρι με το μπέικιν πάουντερ, το αλάτι και τη ζάχαρη. Προσθέτετε το ξύσμα, το λάδι και το χυμό πορτοκαλιού και ζυμώνετε. Αν χρειαστεί, προσθέτετε λίγο χλιαρό νερό. Η ζύμη πρέπει να είναι σφιχτή και ελαστική. Την πλάθετε μια μπάλα, τη σκεπάζετε με μεμβράνη και την αφήνετε 1 ώρα να «ξεκουραστεί».

Για να ετοιμάσετε τη γέμιση, σε ένα μπολ ανακατεύετε τις ελιές με το κρεμμύδι, τα αμύγδαλα και το δυόσμο.

Προθερμαίνεται τον φούρνο στους 180°C. Σε επίπεδη, αλευρωμένη επιφάνεια ανοίγετε με τον πλάστη τη ζύμη σε χοντρά φύλλα και τα κόβετε σε λωρίδες. Απλώνετε λίγη από τη γέμιση κατά μήκος κάθε λωρίδας και τυλίγετε σε ρολό, σαν φραντζολάκια.

Αραδιάζετε τα ρολά σε λαδωμένο ταψί, τα ραντίζετε με λίγο νερό και τα πασπαλίζετε με σουσάμι. Ψήνετε στον φούρνο για 35 λεπτά περίπου, μέχρι δηλαδή να ροδοκοκκινίσουν οι ελιόπιτες. Τις κόβετε λοξά και τις σερβίρετε.

(Source: http://www.olivemagazine.gr)

7 Snacks, die ihr den ganzen Abend essen könnt

Ihr sucht gesunde Alternativen zu Chips, Schokolade, Plätzchen und Co, die ihr abends bedenkenlos naschen könnt? Kein Problem! Von diesen 7 Snacks nehmt ihr definitiv nicht zu.

snacks-gabel-r

Grüne und schwarze Oliven

Statt zu Chips oder Nachos mit Käse-Dip solltet ihr besser zu grünen und schwarzen Oliven greifen. Am besten schmecken diese pur oder in Olivenöl. Die Früchte des Ölbaums sind reich an ungesättigten Fettsäuren, Vitamin A, Natrium, Kalcium und Eisen – und sollen sogar vor Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen schützen. Schwarze Oliven weisen etwa 185 Kalorien, grüne Oliven rund 140 Kalorien pro 100 Gramm auf. Zum Vergleich: 100 Gramm Kartoffelchips haben etwa 535 Kalorien.

oliven-c

Eingelegte Gurken

Gurken, die man selbst eingelegt hat, sind ein wunderbar würziger und gesunder Snack für zwischendurch – und noch dazu kalorienarm. Auf 100 Gramm Cornichons kommen lediglich 15 Kalorien, aber auch eingelegte Honiggurken sind mit 70 Kalorien immer noch ein leichter Snack. Dasselbe gilt für Mixed Pickles, bei dem ihr bedenkenlos den ganzen Abend zugreifen könnt.

eingelegte-gurken-c

More at: http://www.brigitte.de

(Source: http://www.brigitte.de)